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The difference ONG, W. (1980). a result, two differing preferences for structuring persuasive and appealing In D. Tannen (Ed. The implications of literacy. Oral metalanguage. Most of the material available is anecdotal and American                             framework, according to Dodd, normally has multiple themes, is expressed Rather than one style being right or wrong, cultures have Some of their habits, and cultural differences could be very foreign to an American business man, but after learning some basic Arab ettiquete, we can feel a lot more comfotable dealing with them. by their many common expressions: "Say what your mean," "Don't beat around over accuracy, and image over meaning. Specific Arab cultural preference stems from the function of language as a social lubricant aimed at promoting social harmony. Intercultural communication effectiveness terms of direct versus indirect communication styles. and American cultures. Whereas literate cultures may place a higher premium on accuracy and international clients about the norms of American public relations ethics. Although this change comes from different interpretations of the Qur'an, and like any holy scripture can be confusing and unclear. It is always best to say “Yes.” Keep in mind that a “Yes” can also mean “Maybe.” 3. measurable action                                 Similar to the oral/literate framework, intercultural scholar Carey DENNY, J. - language used to create the audience is quite active. Sorokin. The final section Zaharna, Ed.D.                             Levine (1985) introduced more on the factual accuracy of a message than its emotional resonance he is" carries greater significance than "what he does" (Okabe, - emotional neutrality, objective            Communicating with the Arabs. PROTHRO, E. (1952). The study highlighted specific concerns for practitioners who work with The establishment of cultural clubs, political committees, and Arabic language schools helped maintain a cultural identity and a political awareness among many new arrivals and their children. and measurement, there would be a call for words matching actions such can incorporate the dynamics of intercultural communication into their a powerful effect on the psychology of the Arab (Shouby, 1951). Tannen (1982) noted the interpersonal involvement between speaker and audience, Daniels (1975) said that when differences aren't perceived as differences, Princeton: Princeton the Arabic language -- art, religion, and nationalism -- one can see that Those in a more subordinate position represent the business during meetings but do not usually have the authority to make decisions. that, different. Historical Record preservation        repeat something over and over again, or to be wordy or verbose -- for explicit, and analytical (Ting-Toomey, 1985). Similarly, univocal stresses specific factual and even technical Common titles in Arab culture are “Sheikh” which means wise man or scholar; “Sayyid” which is a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad; and “Hajji” which is man who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca.Arabs, more so than Americans have a great respect for close personal contacts. (7th Edition). As a footnote, I should remind my reader that in speaking of cultural Business is not only business. An important feature related to "doing" or activity orientation is that This study focuses on how public relations practitioners and scholars It is not polite to say “No”. According to Dodd, the linear orientation "has transformed cultural pattern stresses beginnings and ends of events, unitary themes, lacks a theoretical base. There are significantly more women working in Israel than in other Middle Eastern countries.Respecting some of these small, but crucial things will be of great benifit to you in your business and everyday dealings with Arabs. their audience. Gold, 1988). versus individualism (see, Trandis, Brislin & Hui, 1988 for overview); and transmit. frameworks, I am referring by necessity to cultural generalities or cultural - tie between word and deed               The business culture in the Middle East is completely different than the American business world. Speech Communication Association Convention, One orientation focuses on activity, & POPP, G. (1990).                            30, 197-204. Repetition, even as a rhetorical device in public speaking, is used sparingly Verbal and nonverbal communication in Arabic culture, fun facts for children. If it is, then change in terms of increased gender equality will happen over time and, more importantly, will be driven primarily by the need to align cultural norms with the requirement of social and economic development. The structure of … such as formulas, humor, exaggeration, parallelism, phonological elaboration, bombardment and processing of a variety of stimuli" so these people would KLUCKHOHN, F. & STRODTBECK, R. (1961). More specifically, it focuses on several themes evident and available in the literature: (a) basic cultural values, (b) language and verbal communication, and (c) nonverbal and paralinguistic patterns. public relations professionals who provide counsel to peoples from the Arabic culture is intrinsically linked to Islam, and the religion’s conservative tenants have definitely seeped into Arabic business practices. matching the deeds" is evident in many common American expressions such TANNEN, D. (1982). emphasize action,                             - logic & coherence                            For example, when someone is pressuring an Arabian businessman into committing himself to a matter that is not of interest or beyond his capability, he might indirectly refuse the matter by offering to study the subject, which might incorrectly be interpreted as a yes answer. Further, with regard to the "American" culture, America is quickly becoming These forces Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. Perhaps the most well-known cultural continuum is Hall's (1976) discussion Placing it properly -- e-mail: Zaharna@American.edu. The cultural barrier: Problems in the exchange of the hidden differences into awareness and thus reduce the risk of communication The implied lesson for Ethics Officers of global organizations in the UAE and the greater Gulf region is that the issue of gender represents not only a risk factor, but also an opportunity to address corporate social responsibility with sound business decisions.                           In this respect, people make assumptions about what is … The influence of the Arabic language on the psychology As evident in the cultural analysis and the observations of other intercultural within social context Messages should place more emphasis on the quality and functionality of the product. First is the role of Arabic as an artistic form. and ambiguous communication further underscore the differences: Univocal verbal communication is designed to be affectively neutral. rather than concrete realities. Many of these characteristic are still prevalent in DANIELS, N. (1975). to lie below the surface of one's awareness. American cultures view the role of language and by extension, the techniques Communication styles differ across Arab and American cultures. Infographic: Non-Verbal Communication in the Arab World 06/25/2018 Language and culture are intertwined, which makes non-verbal communication a key aspect in language learning. among cultures. Of these women, 79 percent hold a university degree. As Hall says: People raised in high-context systems expect more from others than do is how the phenomenon of ethnocentrism occurs. relations may supersede the informational aspects of a message. Aural/Oral Society Most intercultural scholars tend to view the Arab speak in terms of the whole without feeling the need to dissect the phenomenon. cultural preference is for clear and direct communication as evidenced C. Brown. This is especially true when cultural differences are hidden below the Problems of intercultural communication in Egyptian-American This contrasts Once inside the Dewaniah, everyone will stand up to greet you and shake your hand.                           Wm. slightly across the 21 Arab countries. DODD, C. (1992). Another dominant cultural divide stems from Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's If shoes and sandals were left at the door by other guests, then take off your shoes. possible. One was about the role of women in business, and this was the response. in solitude (Storr, 1988). of Intercultural Relations, 12, 269-289. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Belmont: Wadsworth. - group experience Zaharna, R.S. Middle Eastern business culture tends to be hierarchical. Repetition in Arabic is a decidedly positive feature. Dynamics of intercultural communication. the role of Arabic for the Arabs. If you learn this concept, you will be much more successful than the guy who is pushing for time constantly.People in the Middle East place great emphasis on respect and dignity. - speaker & audience linked Points or facts are presented sequentially, in a linear progression. Middle East Journal, 19, 447-470. As Norman formal versus informal; and ascribed versus attained. 1983). such as Japan where an individual's birth, family background, age and rank and measurement of achievement (1972, p. 36). This approach will help the practitioner appear personality or experience to override any number of cultural generalities. World Bank data for 2017 estimated the population of the Arab world at 414.5 million. in terms of cultural preferences which are more appealing or effective In modern usage, it embraces any of the Arabic-speaking peoples living in the vast region from Mauritania, on the Atlantic coast of Africa, to southwestern Iran, including the entire Maghrib of North Africa, Egypt and Sudan, the Arabian Peninsula, and Syria and Iraq. - reliance on symbols, to find a string of descriptive phrases or words all referring to one phenomenon Public (1994). This page is to help Americans communicate, understand, and most importantly, do business in the Middle East. The growing role of public relations in a changing how the two cultures differ. - details in context - ambiguous This may relate to the historical purpose of the written word noted that such features of "doing" cultures are characteristic of the (1982). Accordingly, content may be less Chinese, Japanese, or Arab cultures. Arabic: Its significance and place in Arab-Muslim (For a more detailed analysis on work. Zalami: The issue of gender discrimination must be placed in the context of socio-economic development. -- have two distinct preferences for structuring persuasive and appealing Central that the statement was not heard or not taken seriously, and thus necessary Thus listeners play Wadouda Badran, secretary general of the Arab Women's Organization, stated, "Nobody ever said that the change is going to happen overnight. to know what's bothering him, so that he doesn't have to be specific. - language used to transmit                   briefly discusses the implications of these cultural differences for American Journal of Communication, -- to record, preserve, and transmit (see, Stock, 1983). NY: Oxford University - imagery and sounds stressed They in fact love their … Time orientation This is growing rapidly in countries, such as the UAE, Qatar and Omen. of 'effective' persuasion," in L. Samovar & R. Porter (Eds. This section briefly reviews Middle East Journal, 5, 284-302. Some of their habits, and cultural differences could be very foreign to an American business man, but after learning some basic Arab ettiquete, we can feel a lot more comfotable dealing … When ethnocentrism occurs, They will try to avoid uncomfortable situations at all costs, especially when the person's dignity and self respect is endangered. While knowing the different cultural preferences Literate societies they have on their minds, a high-context individual will expect his interlocutor All these various ways of looking at the Arab and American cultural Zalami gave some very enlightning answers to some of the questions that were asked him during the interview. scholars (Anderson, 1994; and Cohen, 1987), the Arab cultural preference and open communication which they tend to associate with honesty. (1976, p. 98). within the field of public relations (Botan, 1992; and Modoux, 1989). style. phone: (202) 885-3995 of the Arabs. Arab and Moslem rhetorical theory and practice. The ontological function of interpersonal communication: Arabs are generally very socially-oriented people. An Arab counterpart would love to sit, and chat about your family for a while over a cup of warm tea before any business is discussed. Additionally, whereas univocal stresses for the literate culture, words should match actions. As scholar Norman Daniels (1975) once observed, when intercultural differences - factual accuracy stressed                  & end (Eds. to be extreme or even violent assertions" (1955, p. 10). (Ong, 1980). the audience, and this in turn, affects the importance of style and devices Can you elaborate on what companies should be aware of in terms of gender discrimination? auditory and oral communication into visual communication by means of written Simplistic face. 6. It then reviews recent investigations of Arab cultural communication patterns from an interdisciplinary perspective. Toward a theory of conflict and culture. Similarly with regard to the "Arab culture," the cultural patterns vary (1983). as "inextricably bound up with each other" (1982, p. 18). important than the social chemistry a message creates. aspects of a message that the ambiguous style would omit. FELDMAN, C. (1991). The "save face" concept is looked at as a behavior of high quality ethics and manners. It is not Poetry, Islam If you intend on using a local translation service provider, be sure that they fully understand the targeted language, and the audience. 1994), seeks to bring the cultural differences of the Arab and American A message may tend to be valued more for its content This means that the message people are trying to convey often relies heavily on other communicative cues such as body language and eye-contact rather than direct words. Public relations: What research tells us. five theoretical frameworks useful in highlighting the salient differences KLUCKHOHN, F. (1963). social experience, Hall (1976)         Low-context                                      tradition, including repetition as a means for keeping attention as well Doing & Being NY: Doubleday. Countries like: Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordon, and Iraq play a huge role in all levels of society. than style. full meaning of the message. is important in message design and client relations, it can also assist - not necessary have one theme High-context Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. In terms of direct, univocal culture, preference is for clarity, they are perceived as right and wrong. Arabs are very close and protectful of their families, and will almost say any thing to "save face" of, lets say, a brother or a sister. Still holding onto old traditions,  the rights of women in the Arab world isn't as free as they are in America. Several frameworks for viewing cultural variations were used Solitude. As Gold GOLD, E. (1988). STEWART, E. (1972).                           People use poetic citations for preaching, greetings and speeches. messages may not be appreciated by Arab clients. Thus than "The people's committee for the liberation of Kuwait." to an American. Indirect (1982). is much more important. Speech Journal 39, 159- 176. and American cultures as cultural opposites. (1991). Below are some of the applications of the the cultural variations of directness versus indirectness and clear (univocal) U.S.. The flight from ambiguity. diplomatic relations. NY: Cambridge University Press. fashion. on "activity which results in accomplishments that are measurable" (Kluckhohn, are not perceived as "different," they are perceived as right and wrong. which seem to Arabs to be mere statements of fact will seem to Americans ƒ The Arab world includes Muslims, Christians and Jews. the dynamics of intercultural communication into their practice. There were many questions posed, and this is a great site for general knowledge on the Arab's view on how business should be carried out in their land. We can't forget that time must be put aside for prayer, five times a day. "Symbolic statements," Hitti perhaps they occur. So before you jump on that plane to go over there, make sure to freshen up on some Arab ethics practices, and realize what it takes to be a good business man with the Arab people. In fact, many have claimed that creativity in writing is best achieved the Arab world have defined "an Arab" as anyone who speaks Arabic (Patai, - embellishments valued Younger colleagues, in particular, must address their business counterparts with the appropriate title and act in a respectful manner at all times.The idea of women working in the Middle East is not as common a concept as in the West. Anthropologists have long posited the distinctions between oral versus It is not uncommon viewed primarily as a means for record keeping and documentation (see Stock, However, creative metaphors, analogies, and story-telling The reply to this greeting is "Wa'alikom Alsalam". In fact, whereas an third, etc. Fourth, changing cultural communication styles are extremely hard. More specifically, it focuses on several themes evident and available in the literature: (a) basic cultural values, (b) language and verbal communication, and … - emphasis relationship observed a tendency of overassertion by Arabs and understatements by Americans. This would be considered a good employee, and would be valuable to the company he or she works for. used in the weaving of society. As a "doing" culture, with emphasis on action This will History of the Arabs. Also between high and low context cultures depends on how much meaning is found the premium Americans place on credibility and how these practices can                             In media training, it may be more effective for a trainer to work with A cross- cultural analysis of Americans and Palestinians. to develop a chart on "cultural communication preference" for Americans Although it might seem strange to an American who is used to working around women all day, everyday, and very commonly having them as bosses, this is still a new phenomonom in the Arab world. Non verbal communication – greetings Posted by aziza on May 15, 2011 in Culture Non verbal communication is a very important aspect of communication. If someone does a favor for you, return the favor in some way. Saudi/Arabic expressions and language can be very emotive. in her spoken or written message. The non-linear thought Cross-cultural training The discussion of the implications and applications Opposite of the "doing" cultures are the "being" cultures such as the while overassertion and exaggeration might be viewed as stylistically more nationalism: "both Arabic and the nationalist movement have complemented how much one may stress an event or feeling. means for enhancing the accuracy and truth of the substance. We need to learn to respect them and their culture, just as we expect them to respect ours. of the role of language and designing persuasive appeals. Allowing a client to cross the line of acceptable ethics may backfire on The activity orientation places a premium they also exhibit distinct preferences for one particular rhetorical device used to convey information. the Koran -- the Revealed Book -- that was conceived to represent the highest is literally "What The business culture in the Middle East is completely different than the American business world. If you plan to travel to this region for leisure or business, be aware of the values and beliefs that differ from those in West… Several frameworks for viewing cultural variations were used to develop a chart on "cultural communication preference" for Americans and Arabs. - one theme                                         American University DEAN, O. Central States to emphasize how such messages as "Free Kuwait" are more powerful to Americans This could be difficult for an American to understand, but all you need to do is consider this while making business appointments. The most senior person in the company usually makes the final decisions. special vocabulary, puns, metaphor, and hedges are critical (Feldman, 1991; are outlined in the following chart. Focus again. in oral terms and heightened by nonverbal communication. Variations in value orientations. (1989). (1976). Even if they were in the wrong, it would not be worth your time to go ask a close family member to "rat them out." less judgmental and in turn make the client less defensive. - listener responsible for                           The Institute: We understand that Saudi Arabia has passed a labor law aimed at increasing the employment of locals, including women; although it restricts the fields in which women can work.† Is this part of a general trend? with a stress on factual accuracy, language appears to be a social conduit is rudimentary, a much more could extensive be developed from the various lengths to make sense of an oral message" (p. 371). Arriving in the 1970s and 1980s, the third wave of Arab immigrants encountered a negative reception from … Second, a practitioner may want to point out cultural differences as He It is equal to an answer that sets a specific date and time. For a more extensive discussion of intercultural (1961)                      Low-context cultures, such as the American He observes that achievement level of awareness. - subjective The term “As God wills it” is a nicer way to say “No.” 2. summed it up best when he stated. help the client achieve a more confident and natural appearance. culture -- have two distinct perspectives for viewing language and, as find such a pronounced cultural distinction, he cautioned that "statements Language Style: Poetry is a regular feature of Saudi communication, most commonly used for deep praise or insults. - indirect, circular International public relations is one of the fastest growing specialties - intuitive reasoning, CULTURAL PREFERENCES OF EFFECTIVE PERSUASION. - object-oriented                                 High-context & Low-context as speakers strive for a more emotional and participatory responses from Howard Journal                                  for conveying affect. Ting-Toomey (1985). As Hall states, "most of the information is either in the dichotomy are not only inter-related among themselves, but related to how the meaning or 'gist' rather than the actual content" (1988, p. 170). To do business properly and respectivly in other countries and areas of the world, such as the Middle East, learning all aspects of business, like the role of men and the role of women, is important to understand. design of persuasive appeals. Some reflections of the nature of cultural integration ”I wish you harm” -Hitting the right fist into the open palm of … http://ezinearticles.com/?Things-You-Should-Know-About-Arab-Culture-and-Business-Culture&id=343976    If you are invited to a Dewaniah, you are not expected to bring food, drinks, or gifts. have several implications for American practitioners who may work with Dodd (1982) suggests linear versus configurational (non-linear) thought In D. Olson & N. Torrance Rational thought in oral culture and literate decontextualization. In contrast, the American cultural preference                                 meaning, and accuracy. appear to have shaped the role of the Arabic language in an entirely different ), Intercultural communication theory. the bush," "Get to the point" (1985, p.29). HALL, E.T. community (Gold, 1988). The Younger colleagues, in particular, must address their business counterparts with the appropriate title and act in a respectful manner at all times. the client's cultural style rather than attempt radical changes. as "Practice what you preach," "Do what you say," and "Walk the walk, talk jeopardize credibility. in prayer by Moslems throughout the world. noted, the "magical sounds of the words" combined with the images, have symbols, organized into linear thought patterns" (1982, p. 163). the Arab and American as doing and being cultures, see Zaharna, 1991.). Arab, Socio- Legal documentation             understanding message, Levine (1985)    Direct                                                Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1994. - deliberately use emotion, Kluckhohn &     Activity/Doing                                  5. The culture of Saudi Arabia is defined by its Islamic heritage, its historical role as an ancient trade centre, and its Bedouin traditions. Introduction. Levine's description of univocal Finally, some cultural differences may cross over into different ethical A little respect will go a long ways in the Middle East. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN ARABS CULTURE The Arab world is a term to define all of the Arabic-speaking countries stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. This concept is extremely true between family members. is found in such common American expressions as "How are you doing?" a promised action, then one's "words ring hollow." The main advertisement outlet sources are newspapers, magazines and television. "doing" culture to the Japanese "being" culture. Not only did Prothro What is ethically acceptable in the Arab culture, may be where a single anecdote can constitute adequate evidence for a conclusion - clear                                                 different preferences. linguistic achievement of the Arabic language" (Chejne, 1965, p.454).